Saturday, May 23, 2020

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in Spanish

Look in just about any good Spanish dictionary, and most verbs will be listed as either transitive (verbo transitivo, often abbreviated in dictionaries as vt or tr) or intransitive (verbo intransitivo, abbreviated to vi or int). These designations can give you an important clue as to how the verb is used in sentences. What Are Transitive and Intransitive Verbs? A transitive verb is simply one that needs a direct object (a noun or a pronoun that the verb acts upon) to complete its thought. An intransitive one does not. An example of a transitive verb is the English verb to get and one of its Spanish equivalents, obtener. If you were to use the verb by itself, such by saying I get in English or obtengo in Spanish, it is clear you arent expressing a complete thought. Theres a natural follow-up question here: What are you getting?  ¿Quà © obtengas? The verb simply isnt complete without an accompanying noun (or pronoun) to indicate what is being obtained: I am getting an error message. Obtengo un mensaje de error. Another transitive verb is to surprise or its Spanish equivalent, sorprender. To express a complete thought, the verb must indicate who is surprised: It surprised me. Me sorprendià ³. To get, to surprise, obtener and sorpender, then, are all transitive verbs. They must be used with an object. Intransitive verbs are used without objects. They stand by themselves without acting on a noun or pronoun. Although they can be modified in meaning using adverbs or phrases, they cannot take a noun as an object. An example is the English verb to flourish and its Spanish equivalent, florecer. It doesnt make sense to flourish something, so the verb stands alone: The sciences flourished. Florecà ­an las ciencias. There are many verbs that can be used either transitively or intransitively. One example is to study or estudiar. You can use an object for a transitive usage (I am studying the book. Estudio el libro.) or without an object for an intransitive usage (I am studying. Estudio.). To write and escribir can be used in exactly the same ways. Take Note Transitive verbs (or verbs that are used transitively) need a direct object to be complete.Intransitive verbs do not need an object to be complete.Usually, but not always, Spanish verbs and their English counterparts match each other in transitivity. Verb Usage in Spanish vs. English The distinctions between transitive and intransitive verbs usually dont give Spanish students a lot of trouble. Most of the time, when a transitive verb is used in English, youll use a transitive one in Spanish. However, there are some verbs that can be used transitively in one language but not the other, or the opposite. That is one reason you may want to check the dictionary before you try using a verb in a way you havent heard it before. An example of a verb that can be used transitively in English but not Spanish is to swim, as in He swam the river. But the Spanish equivalent, nadar, cant be used in that way. While you can swim something in English, you cant nadar algo in Spanish. Youll need to recast the sentence: Nadà ³ por el rà ­o. The opposite can happen as well. In English, you cant sleep something, but in Spanish you can: La madre durmià ³ al bebà ©. The mother put the baby to sleep. In translating such verbs to English, youll often need to recast the sentence. Note that there are some verbs that are classified as neither transitive nor intransitive. These include pronominal or reflexive verbs (often abbreviated in Spanish as prnl), compulative or linking verbs (cop), and auxiliary verbs (aux). Pronominal verbs are listed in dictionaries as ending in -se. Examples of Spanish Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in Use Transitive verbs: Comà ­ tres hamburguesas. (I ate three hamburgers.)El estudiante golpeà ³ la pared. (The student hit the wall.)Cambiarà © el dinero en el aeropuerto. (I will change the money in the airport.) Intransitive verbs: Comà ­ hace dos horas. (I ate three years ago. Hace tres horas is an adverbial phrase, not an object. The verb in the next example is also followed by an adverbial phrase.)La luz brillaba con muchà ­sima fuerte. (The light shone very strongly.)Las mofetas huelen mal. (Skunks stink.)

Monday, May 18, 2020

Mind and Body - 866 Words

Mind and Body The concept of mind and body interactions has been debated among many modern philosophers. Some believe that our minds and bodies are different things, thus existing separately, while others believe that they exist as a whole. In this paper, I will be introducing two rationalist philosophical views regarding this topic, one which is by Rene Descartes and the other by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Rationalists, in philosophical terms, are the ones who obtain their knowledge through reasoning rather than the human senses. Descartes and Leibniz both have similar perspectives, but Leibniz takes a slightly different approach to improve Descartes’ argument. This paper will first show Descartes’ original argument, an example that proves the argument to be invalid, and then lastly, a revised version of the argument with Leibniz’s help. Rene Descartes is a modern French philosopher, who is famous for his line, â€Å"I think, therefore I am.† The meaning of this quote is that he must exist because he has the ability to think. In Descartes most famous work, The Meditations, he starts off by doubting everything, which is known as the Method of Doubt. He believes that our senses are always deceiving us in some way and so our senses are unreliable in proving anything. By this, he means that when we use our senses, such as our vision, to look at something, the way that the object looks from afar is different from the way it looks upfront, thus, deceiving us. However, DescartesShow MoreRelatedMind/Body Practices: Ancient Traditions with Contemporary Benefits3290 Words   |  14 Pagesyears later, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) became an official branch of the National Institutes of Health. Although alternative medicine has only recently gained official recognition in the United States, the mind/body practices that pervade NCCAM’s research have ancient roots. For example, the some forms of meditation, a t echnique originating in Eastern religions, can be traced back thousands of years. The American Yoga Association reports that yoga dates backRead MoreThe Mind Body And Body1341 Words   |  6 Pages The Mind-Body problem arises to Philosophy when we wonder what is the relationship between the mental states, like beliefs and thoughts, and the physical states, like water, human bodies and tables. For the purpose of this paper I will consider physical states as human bodies because we are thinking beings, while the other material things have no mental processes. The question whether mind and body are the same thing, somehow related, or two distinct things not related, has been asked throughoutRead MoreThe Mind And The Body1718 Words   |  7 PagesThe mind and the body are two different but unique essentials of an individual. Both the mind and the body play an important role in an individual’s life. From making decisions by using the brain, to being able to sense all five senses from the body, both parts illustrate its importance of existence. In today’s society, the mind and the body have shown a connection between how an individual regulates his or her own daily l ifestyle. Although, it hasn’t always been clear about how the mind and theRead MoreBodies and Minds2165 Words   |  9 PagesHow do our bodies and minds change from early to late adulthood? Joshua Lansberry Ashford University PSY 304 Lifespan Development Prof. Pamela Vincent May 18, 2015 How do our bodies and minds change from early to late adulthood? As we age does our mind simply begin to deteriorate in the same fashion as our body does in regards to it physical capabilities? Have you wondered what affect does peri and post-menopause have inRead MoreIs the mind independent to the body?791 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Is the mind independent to the body? The mind body problem is a philosophical problem that is concerned with the relationship between the mind and the body, whether the mind exists independently of the body or whether the mind and body are one substance. There is a vital difference between the mind and the body some would say, meaning that the mind is held responsible for mental elements such as pain, euphoria, desire, purpose, belief and kindness whereas the body is responsible for the physicalRead MoreThe Between Mind And Body1056 Words   |  5 PagesThere is no real answer for the question about if mind and body are the same or different, a person is made of mind and body and the both have different characteristics. Rene Descartes asked the question what am I. he gives and answer to the question by saying he is a thinking thig, if the body and mind are different from one other, mind can also continue with no body because it is not import for what he is. Moreover body is breakable and extender and mind is not breaka ble and non-extended, that is aRead MoreThe Mind And Body Dualism Essay1363 Words   |  6 PagesAs Descartes says, the mind and the body are one cohesive â€Å"object† that produce the behaviors and actions of a human being, Mind Body Dualism. However, is this concept truly intended to prove that, metaphorically speaking, the mind and body are one and that it is, physiologically speaking, connected through the pineal gland? Or, does it show that Descartes is connecting a material and immaterial substance, that both contain two different ideas in the proper function of a human being? The intentionRead MoreAnalysis Of Body And Mind Essay835 Words   |  4 PagesPaper #3 â€Å"Body and Mind† Recall: In â€Å"Body and Mind†, Rachels describes several popular attempts to resolve the â€Å"Mind-Body Problem†, which is an effort to understand what human mental states are and how they relate to our physical bodies: 1) Mind-Body Dualism asserts that the mind is nonphysical with private states while the body is physical with public states; 2) Behaviorism tries to resolve the problem by observing human behavior and relating that to mental thoughts and states; 3) Mind-Brain IdentityRead MoreThe Mind And Body Problem1046 Words   |  5 PagesPatel December 13, 2014 PHILO 1100-091 The Mind and Body Problem The issue of the origins of consciousness has been a problem that has philosophers and scientists alike, puzzled for years. Is it a matter of science? Can it be explained through neurobiological processes or is it just something that simply cannot be reduced to words? Rene Descartes had struggled to explain this problem through his idea of substance dualism. This idea states that the mind and body are of two separate worlds, the physicalRead MoreAnalysis Of The Body And Mind 855 Words   |  4 PagesProtocol Paper 3 – Body and Mind RECALL: In the Body and Mind chapter by Rachels it goes over many points. 1) Mind-Body dualism in a way to solve the mind-body problem, explains the relationship between mind and body facts. 2) It also points out the problems with mind-body dualism it is hard to see how a nonphysical mind could interact with a physical body. 3) Rachels points out that the mind-body dualism has largely disappeared from science and philosophy because it did not fit the emerging scientific

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Road Accidents - Speed The Only Reason - 1586 Words

ROAD ACCIDENTS – SPEED THE ONLY REASON? Surface transport is a vital activity of all human civilization since time immemorial. Humankind has spread all over the globe by means of surface transport. Of the various means of surface transport, road transport is the most common and crucial in human life. Roads have spread wide and in fact, road intensity could be an index of socio-economic progression of human communities, states and countries. Along with spread of the roads, the vehicles also have grown up in number, technology and consequently in speed. That had repercussions in terms accidents and human, livestock, and wildlife causalities, and loss of properties. Such unpleasant repercussions also had other socio-economic, psychological and other opportunistic costs as well, especially in societies with lesser social security measures in place. Road accidents occur mainly due to over confidence and carelessness, and at times road rage and competitive spirit. According to official statistics, 238, 562 total fatalities were reported in India during the year 2013. The country is one of the fast growing economies and personal transport is one of the booming industries in the country. The reasons behind these incredible numbers of fatalities on the road were reported to be road environment, driver skill, drug and alcohol consumption, operating speed and road design. These accidents lead to death, fatalities and financial loss to both individuals and families. The main causes forShow MoreRelatedImportance of Obeying Traffic Laws Essay1555 Words   |  7 Pagesdesigned to protect you and other drivers on the road. If we do not follow them we are not only putting ourselves at risk but also innocent bystanders and drivers. By knowing the rules of the road, practicing good driving skills and generally taking care as a road user, y ou help play a vital role in preventing a crash. You will also be making road safety policies more effective. Many factors play a role in road safety including following the speed limits that are posted and making sure safety equipmentRead MoreThe Causes of Road Accidents in Malaysia1692 Words   |  7 PagesThe Causes Of Road Accidents In Malaysia Time to time, half a million of Malaysians died because of road accidents and the highest cases of road accidents are caused by the drivers’ behaviour, equipment failure and the road conditions and infrastructure. Because of the road accidents many people have lose their family member or close friend. Besides, the road accidents also may effected to government when they have to repair for the broken infrastructure that caused by the accident like lamp standRead MoreTeen Driving Essay826 Words   |  4 Pageshe had in his car. But, this accident was no accident. Weston was going 70 mph in a 40 mph speed zone. The issue in this story is that young drivers like Weston, inexperienced and full of adrenaline are just hurting them selves and others by getting behind the wheel at such a young age. Teens between the ages 15 through 17 do not belong on the road. Outrageous amounts of teens are dying every year and these numbers are not changing, so why keep them on the road? Te en driving in the United StatesRead MoreCar Accident Essay879 Words   |  4 Pagesdied in a car accident . I didn’t.† In these days a lot of drivers record or photograph how they are speeding up in the streets while driving just for impressing people in social media . People don’t realize that doing those minor things causes severe pains or even death . people are on their phones, sending text messages , driving drank and most of them are having fatigue from driving for long hours or overly stressed after having a though working day, but after having a car accident who is the oneRead MoreTypes of Drivers782 Words   |  4 Pagesresult in senseless accidents hurting yourself as well as others on the road. However, it is interesting though sometimes annoying when we observe the categories that traverse our roads daily. In most cases these drivers are too oblivious to these classifications and to all the other drivers. Trying to sort out what type of driver a person might be is an extremely challenging task. However, knowing the different type of behavioral characteristics of these drivers on the road can help you assessRead MoreDriving On The Road Rage863 Words   |  4 Pagesdestination. When you are driving on the roads, you will likely encounter an aggressive driver. They usually make themselves noticeable by cutting people off and yelling at other drivers. They seem to always be in a rush to get to their destination so they will do what they need to do to get there. Other aggressive drivers can be the type to yell and curse at other drivers because of frustration which is known as road rage. Someone that has road rage typically will get upset over something thatRead MoreThe Dangers Of Not Following Traffic Laws1459 Words   |  6 Pagestheir vehicle. Driving is not a right, it is a privilege. You must follow traffic laws and demonstrate your ability to drive safely and cautiously on the roads. It is your own responsibility to be a safe and careful driver, not only for yourself but for other drivers you share the road with. If you fail to follow traffic laws you are not only putting yourself in a dangerous situation, you are putting others in danger as well. You also take the chance of traffic fines, having your license suspendedRead MoreIs Automation The First Thing? Essay1115 Words   |  5 Pagesrecent years road accidents are common issue . Every government take many steps to solve this issue but could not solve it . Maximum accidents occur for driving unconsciously . Most time drivers avoid traffic rules . Changing lanes continuously is another reason . Most time drivers drives cars at high speed and whenever he saw any object in front of him he can’t control his speed that’s why accident occurs . If we can control this speed by decelerating cars speed then this accident rate will reduceRead MoreDistracted Driving Is One Of The Leading Cause Of Death Essay1396 Words   |  6 Pagesis a misdemeanor and could result in a few months in jail, as well as a fine. The punishments for a DUI get more severe each time someone is charged. While, the punishment for texting and driving are only monetary fines. So, why is texti ng and driving considered a less punishable offense? A major reason is because of the length of time both have been a problem. The first law against drinking and driving was in 1910 and cell phones weren t popular until 80 years after in the 1990s. Because of the longRead MoreEssay on How to Make the Malahat Safer1505 Words   |  7 Pageswinding Malahat Mountain Highway on South Vancouver Island has been an on-going issue since its conception back in 1861 when it was built as a cattle trail, then up-graded to wagon-road status in 1884 and eventually paved in 1911 (Commission). Currently vital safety upgrades are underway such as concrete barriers to divide the road lanes and stabilization solutions for falling debris. The presence of physical law enforcement units on the highway to manage problems like cell phone usage, impaired drivers

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Role of Human Resource Information Systems (Hris) in...

The Role of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) Asafo-Adjei Agyenim Boateng Master of Science Theses in Accounting Swedish School Of Economics and Business Administration 2007 HANKEN-Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration Department: Accounting Type of Work: Master of Science Thesis Author: Asafo-Adjei Agyenim Boateng Date: 4th August, 2007 Title of Thesis THE ROLE OF HRIS IN STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Abstract: Information technology is expected to drive Human Resource (HR)s transition from a focus on Human Resource Management (HRM) to Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). This strategic role not only adds a valuable dimension to the HR function, but†¦show more content†¦11 2.3.6 Performance appraisal process ......................................................................... 12 2.3.7 Employee Compensation and benefits process ................................................ 12 2.3.8 Occupational health and safety process ........................................................... 13 2.4 Chapter Summary.................................................................................................... 14 3 T HE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (SHRM) ........................................................................................................................................... 15 3.1 SHRM development................................................................................................ 15 3.2 SHRM definition ..................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Dimensions of SHRM ............................................................................................. 19 3.3.1 Re engineering and strategic human resource management ............................ 19 3.3.2 Leadership and strategic human resource management ................................... 20 3.3.4 Workplace learning and strategic human resource management ..................... 20 3.3.5 Trade unions and strategic human resource management................................ 21 3.4Show MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management and Strategic Human Resource Management1136 Words   |  5 PagesManaging Human Resources, 3rd edn, John Wiley Sons, Milton, Qld. In chapter 1 of the text, the author shows an overview of human resource management and strategic human resource management. The author also shows the relationship between HRM and management, manager’s role meaning of strategy, strategic approach to HRM and strategic challenges. Lots of diagrams and explanations are used by the author. This chapter has contributed to my understanding of strategic human resource management by analysingRead MoreCharacteristics of 21st Century Hr1708 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom tradition personnel management to human resource management. With the evolution of human resource it has gained many strategies and has characteristics that help HR mangers to work effectively and efficiently. With the 21st century underway, nonprofit, government, and private organizations seek to adapt to an ever-changing professional environment. Within these organizations, human resources, HR, departments face particular challenges. Their role, human resources management, includes the hiringRead MoreThe Impact Of Information Technology On Human Resource Management852 Words   |  4 Pages Information technology is expected to drive Human Resource (HR) s transition from a focus on Human Resource Management (HRM) to Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). This strategic role not only adds a valuable dimension to the HR function, but also changes the competencies that define HR professional and practitioner success. Helps the organization to go more flexibly and accurately by technology. HRIS functions * Integrating the Technologies of HR. Developments in information technologyRead MoreEssay on Week 2 Hrm Article Assignments696 Words   |  3 Pages(if any) I would make going forward. As well as what methods I would employ to ensure that an HRIS package meets the majority of clients’ need. Benefast Partners have more than 20,000 staff members so they have greater need for efficiency. The strategy for Benefast Partners is to target a larger market, which is crucial for the firm to implement an effective and efficient system that will consider information accuracy with the aid of technology so as to simplify all the processes. In this case especiallyRead MoreInformation System: A Module with Case13758 Words   |  56 PagesIntegrating a Human Resource Information System: A Module with Case By James E. Bartlett, II, Ph.D., and Michelle E. Bartlett, M.S. Edited by Myrna Gusdorf, MBA, SPHR Stra tegic HR Management instructor’s Manual Project Team Author: James E. Bartlett, II, Ph.D., and Michelle E. Bartlett, M.S. SHRM project contributors: Bill Schaefer, SPHR Nancy A. Woolever, SPHR External contributor: Sharon H. Leonard Editor: Katya Scanlan, copy editor Design: Terry Biddle, graphic designer  © 2008 SocietyRead MoreHuman Resource Management Competencies Essay985 Words   |  4 PagesChallenges faced in Human Resource Management in the Workplace Romonia Fullenwilder HRM5004 Human Resource Management Instructor: Dr. Jean Gordon Abstract Today the Human Resources Management (HRM) professional role is integral with the strategic growth of an organization by managing its Human Capital. Human Capital is definedRead MoreRole of Human Resource Information System in Banking Industry of Developing Countries2276 Words   |  10 PagesRole of Human Resource Information System in Banking Industry of Developing Countries Dr. Harman Preet Singh Assistant Professor, PGDAV College University of Delhi, Delhi, India Dr. Sunita Jindal Associate Professor, giBS GGS IP University, Delhi, India Sekh Abdul Samim Sr. Relationship Manager, IIPM Bhubaneswar, India Abstract- The deployment of Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in banking is the fruit of development ofRead MoreStarbuckss Strategic Initiatives At Starbucks1243 Words   |  5 PagesStarbucks, Howard Schultz, launched a transformation plan, which included focusing on the customer while still achieving value for the shareholders. In January 2008, Starbucks released a statement regarding the strategic initiatives planned to accomplish just that (Starbucks announces strategic initiatives to increase shareholder value; chairman Howard Shultz returns as CEO, 2008). In the announcement Schultz shared that his plan would include refocusing on the customer with new products and store designsRead MoreHuman Resource Information Systems ( Naics ) For Competitive Edge3380 Words   |  14 Pages Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) for Competitive Edge Management Information Systems Susan Eisel-Brown Empire State College Due: July 26, 2015 Professor Scott Buchanan Abstract This paper examines how Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) can help create an organization’s competitive edge. As technology advances, organizations can realize the benefits of an HRIS. HRIS would allow for the human resource function to become more efficient and to provideRead MoreManaging International Human Resource Management1860 Words   |  8 Pagesturn created the need for International Human Resource Management (IHRM) roles (Scullion, 2001). Human resource management is progressively becoming a major factor that can determine the success or failure of MNC’s. Scullion (2001) concluded that HR strategies play a vital role in implementation and control in MNC’s, and alignment between HR strategies and the organisational structure of MNC’s often results in superior outcomes. In order to strive, human resources must be managed effectively to gain

Iv Therapy Free Essays

Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is when a patient is given liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous means â€Å"within a vein†. Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. We will write a custom essay sample on Iv Therapy or any similar topic only for you Order Now IV therapy is commonly referred to as a drip because many of the ways it is administered use a drip chamber, which prevents air entering the blood stream and allows an idea of how much is flowing in to your body. Compared with other ways of administration the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Some medications, as well as blood transfusions and lethal injections, can only be given intravenously. The simplest form of IV therapy is given through a hypodermic needle. This kind of needle is hollow and allows for the drip to be administered directly to the vein. The needle can be directly attached to a syringe or even to tubing that may be attached to a drip of whatever medication is needed. The needle is usually put into a peripheral vein, this is any vein not in the chest or abdomen. Any easily accessible vein can be used but most commonly veins in the hand or arm are used. In infants it is common to use the veins in the scalp. Central IV lines flow through a catheter with its tip within a large vein, usually the superior vena cava, or inferior vena cava, or within the right atrium of the heart. This has several advantages over a peripheral IV. It can deliver fluids and medications that would be too irritating to peripheral veins because of their concentration or chemical composition. These include some chemotherapy drugs. Medications reach the heart immediately, and are quickly distributed to the rest of the body. However central IV’s run a higher risk of giving you an infection, causing bleeding, and possibly even causing gangrene. A common reason to be hooked up to an IV is for dehydration therapy. Those unable or unwilling to drink or who have repetitive vomiting can receive fluid replacement IV. You are hooked up to a drip and your fluids and electrolytes are replaced through the IV in your hand or arm. There are two types of fluids that are used for intravenous drips; crystalloids and colloids. Crystalloids are aqueous solutions of mineral salts or other water-soluble molecules. Colloids contain larger insoluble molecules, such as gelatin; blood itself is a colloid. The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0. 9% concentration, which is close to the concentration in the blood. Ringer’s lactate or Ringer’s acetate is another isotonic solution often used for large-volume fluid replacement. A solution of 5% dextrose in water, sometimes called D5W, is often used instead if the patient is at risk for having low blood sugar or high sodium. The choice of fluids may also depend on the chemical properties of the medications being given. How to cite Iv Therapy, Papers

International Portfolio Diversification Benefit-Myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the International Portfolio Diversification Benefits. Answer: Introduction: It is evident from the theory of portfolio that domestic invested assets portfolio are generally most favourable. If for instance household in France makes investment only in equity of French, the investor will have subordinate return to the ratio of risk in comparison to the worldwide asset investment (Gaudecker Von (2015). Since it is accurate in common, for each sort of investors, nations and assets an improved, diversification must enhance the investments performance of the investors. The integration of Capital market and diversification is associated in numerous methods. Under a completely incorporated capital market, all the trading risk factors are at the indistinguishable price. This represents that if the capital markets of Europe were entirely integrated than the cycle of business or the risk of inflation would result in identical price in all the capital markets of Europe (Yang et al., 2014). Therefore, integration of capital market represents where the law of one price is entirely applicable to each and every trading assets. Characteristics of International Stock and Bond Portfolios: Large volume of diversified stock and bond portfolio must therefore alter the boundary of the proficient portfolios upward and for every given risk, the standard return of the portfolio must increase. Hence, more integrated capital market must result in bigger segment of overseas stock and bond in the portfolio with the outcome of enhanced diversified investments (Brire et al., 2015). Formally, integrating the capital markets has additional fundamental connotation with liberated access to overseas monetary markets. Nonetheless only, a little portion of the total assets of domestic households is endowed in the marketable assets in the form of equities and bonds. There is a widely evident propensity to make investment in a big place in the domestic state. One portion of the private households is that a large portion of preference from institutional investors in making investment in equities and bonds that is subjugated in the own currency. An additional likely reason of home based occu rrence is the information asymmetry. Generally, investors possess improved information with subordinate information on cost for household assets. According to the viewpoint of personal households, the cost of supplementary business may be very high for making the overseas investment beneficial. The Evolution of Diversification: Investors diversify with the objective of mitigating the effect of fluctuations of market on the return on portfolio. Over the period, this results in the production of smooth in general experience of investment primarily assists in striking a equilibrium between expansion and safety. The concept of diversification provides suggestion that this can be attained by sustaining the mixture of investment through numerous industries, districts and class of assets (Alexeev et al., 2016). The theory adopted by the investors to attain diversification has transformed over the years this is largely due to the globalization and innovation of product. In context of the present day, being efficiently diversified has paved new connotation with innovating degree of significance is provided globally to integrate economies of scale and close association across capital markets. The main contribution to worldwide financial expansion continues to discover and progressively more such kinds of alterations are reflected in the build up of the international capital markets. It is significant that the construction of portfolio also develop to reproduce such changes (Najeeb et al., 2015). Diversification in the modern context represents having a disclosure to openings in rapidly expanding markets with investment in both small and big companies. Globalization of capital markets: Open trade between countries with increase in overseas savings and ever more international surroundings have established better associations between nations, especially in the urbanized market. Economically modernised now make it easier for the investors to gain better admission to the international capital markets but also have better association in the hazard posed across different regions. The statistics suggest that the correlation between international economies has posed new threats in attaining efficient diversification (Bodie et al., 2014). There are market that are very greatly correlated tends to act in response to the alterations in the trade cycle by approaching in the identical track with same degree. The conflicting statement is true for the capital markets that are not correlated or correlated inversely. The principles of combining the investments together that are not correlated or in reverse correlated is precisely the method that determines the concept of diversific ation. A positive correlation is witnessed at the time of international financial crisis when the international equity market fell down sharply after the breakdown of Lehman Brothers bankruptcy on September. For several investors, the financial crisis was in the form of wakeup call with simple diversification across the diversified urbanized areas that no more provided identical reimbursement of risk alleviation which it had in earlier period (Cressy et al., 2014). One of the strong reasons for market cap diversification is higher correlation, which means that this kind of method will not offer the identical degree of downside defence, which it may have in the past. This is reason why adding wider contact to numerous geographic areas has turned into highly important. The rise of emerging markets: The formation of financial activity across the world has transformed. Approximately 50% of the international manufacture arrived from the US and Europe in comparison to the about 35% at present (Meric et al., 2016). The share of production from nations that developing in the Asian regions has increased to more than double over the similar period from 10% to nearly 25% presently. Perhaps the growing markets currently make up more than 80% of international inhabitants and it is worlds rapidly growing economies. Since globalization has resulted in the collapse of the international GDP, innovating technologies have redesigned the face for opportunities of making investment. Companies that are established in the industries are accepting change and rapidly growing innovative capital investment is taking place outside of the places where investors are using for making investment (Zorn et al., 2014). For instance, even though US is leading in the world in regard to the international expenditure on research and development but the expenditure of Asian countries has been increasingly growing from the last decade to the stages from where China has presumed second place across the world at the forefront of Japan. Emerging Markets: The Fresh Economic Powerhouse: Stimulated by a physically powerful aspiration for economic growth several rising markets have gradually more opened their doors towards overseas investment. Several nations are still experiencing the growth following the development of trade relationships with the rest of the world. They are involved in the procedure of setting free the economic drive with highly motivated workforce (Guidi Ugur, 2014). Emerging countries that are involved in the economic expansion play an important in attaining international growth for investors and portfolio. The degree of worldwide GDP derived from the emerging markets has continued to grow significantly since the mid 1960. It is regarded as the trend that is anticipated to experience growth in the coming decades. In contrast to this, developed nations have continued to experience decline in the global GDP. Ever since 1987, the contribution of Americas to overall international GDP levels has dropped from over 30% to less than 27% (Driessen Laeven, 2017). Due to such kind of progress, economic enhancements in rising markets have resulted in rapid growth and stronger returns from equities. A portfolio that is efficiently diversified provides the individual investors to tap in the probable growth of these markets moving forward. Multiple layers of equity investment: Individual investors possess additional options and choices than before. Consideering the range of class of assets and geographic regions, diversification of portfolios can be improved by seeking the big and small organizations across diverse sections and with very precise features (Bouslama Ouda, 2014). Investors currently have better access to the far more strong set of openings and this increasingly plays a vital role in future regarding portfolio performance. Diversification by market capitalization: The smaller cap securities is regarded as highly volatile than the larger cap peers since low amount of correlation demonstrate an obvious advantage to include under a diversified portfolio. This is particularly because over the time bigger and smaller cap stocks have performed in a different manner. Companies that small tend to perform better in the initial stages of the economic recovery with large amount of caps resulting to mature economic cycle (Arouri et al., 2014). This was particularly the case with larger cap stocks have recently started to perform more in accordance with the smaller and medium cap names. Market analyst has covered an additional reason behind where companies that are smaller provided more exclusive openings for investment. Around more than 10,000 companies have traded on large number of major US exchanges (Tangjitprom et al., 2017). Because of this, several small companies that provide better outstanding opportunities for investment are not regularly observed. Making investments cautiously made in the smaller companies can offer the opportunity to purchase higher quality business at subordinate multiple than a person would have to purchase equities from a company that is well-known for identical superiority. Diversifying by sector: Investor can depend into one another for more significant level of diversification by making an investment in companies that function in diverse industry. This is particularly significant for shareholders in Singapore. Singapore can distinguish itself as the international leader in numerous sectors, including financials, energy and resources. Nevertheless, this kind of sectors present more than 75% of the market. In comparison to this, the US and the global markets have more even-handed mixture of sector that is incorporated in a wide variety of industries. It is noteworthy to denote that diversification is not based on building portfolio (Kocaarslan et al., 2017). It is all about maintaining it over the period of time. Because of the market movements, one of the benefits of diversification is that portfolio holders will be able to develop at a different rates and as a consequences of this, the weighting of all class of asset will go with the flow. Such kind of drift will eventually alter the portfolio composition and may perhaps result in performance experience, which is very diverse from what the investors were anticipating. Benefits of diversification: According to Yu et al., (2017), it is understood that attractions of making investing globally is depended on the effects of diversification, contributing in the expansion of international markets and irregular returns because of the segmentations of marketplace. The truth that cross border returns from the markets does not progress accurately in the similar method every times since it will result in diversification gains. The opportunities of participating in a rapidly growing economies of rising markets and as a result achieving astounding values in few years it can be regarded as the benefits of global investments. Hence, being stable about the political risks forms the most important benefits of capital markets in countries that are industrialized. Constant rebalancing forms the ingredient of well-organized method of investing that keeps portfolio on path. If left intact, a mixture of asset drift might result in exposure towards unforeseen risk of missed openings. Rebalancing also assists the investors to purchase on low price and selling at a higher price which over the time can help in reducing the volatility and would assist in improving returns by aiding investors in attaining their long term objectives (Kocaarslan et al., 2017). Developing monetary markets, innovative sources of international monetary growth and advancement in technology have all illustrated the reason why investors is required to constantly review the procedure involved in diversifying the portfolios. The method of diversification has changed considerably in the last two decades with the introduction of new styles of securities and investment styles coming into play. In addition to this, investors have the options of diversifying between the regions, sectors, class of assets, styles of equity and fixed profits of issuers. By considering all the equity products and approaches in the account diversification adds a number of difficulty to the portfolio administration procedure however diversification significantly payoff in reducing risk and mitigating the level of volatility, ultimately leading to advanced investor experience. Conclusion: The international investments help in increasing return with given risk and helps in lowering the risk within a given rate of return. This generally occurs due to the more profitable investment avenues prevailing in an enlarged universe. The empirical findings from the research provides a comparison between the investment and the foreign mixed investment revealing that a steady increase in overseas portfolio amplifies the returns from investment. Reference List: Alexeev, V., Dungey, M., Yao, W. (2016). Continuous and jump betas: implications for portfolio diversification.Econometrics,4(2), 27. Arouri, M., Nguyen, D. K., Pukthuanthong, K. (2014). Diversification benefits and strategic portfolio allocation across asset classes: The case of the US markets.Unpublished working paper, IPAG Business School. Bodie, Z., Kane, A., Marcus, A. J. (2014).Investments, 10e. McGraw-Hill Education. Bouslama, O., Ouda, O. B. (2014). International portfolio diversification benefits: The relevance of emerging markets.International Journal of Economics and Finance,6(3), 200. Brire, M., Oosterlinck, K., Szafarz, A. (2015). Virtual currency, tangible return: Portfolio diversification with bitcoin.Journal of Asset Management,16(6), 365-373. Cressy, R., Malipiero, A., Munari, F. (2014). Does VC fund diversification pay off? An empirical investigation of the effects of VC portfolio diversification on fund performance.International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal,10(1), 139-163. Driessen, J., Laeven, L. (2017). International portfolio diversification benefits: Cross-country evidence from a local perspective.Journal of Banking Finance,31(6), 1693-1712. GAUDECKER, H., VON, M. (2015). How does household portfolio diversification vary with financial literacy and financial advice?.The Journal of Finance,70(2), 489-507. Guidi, F., Ugur, M. (2014). An analysis of South-Eastern European stock markets: Evidence on cointegration and portfolio diversification benefits.Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,30, 119-136. Kocaarslan, B., Sari, R., Soytas, U. (2017). Are There Any Diversification Benefits Among Global Finance Center Candidates in Eurasia?.Emerging Markets Finance and Trade,53(2), 357-374. Meric, G., Taga, L., Kim, J., Meric, I. (2016). Co-Movements of Latin American Equity Markets with the World's Other Equity Markets: Global Portfolio Diversification Implications.Journal of Accounting and Finance,16(4), 126. Najeeb, S. F., Bacha, O., Masih, M. (2015). Does heterogeneity in investment horizons affect portfolio diversification? Some insights using M-GARCH-DCC and wavelet correlation analysis.Emerging Markets Finance and Trade,51(1), 188-208. Tangjitprom, N., Chavalittumrong, P., Leelalai, V. (2017). Does Real Estate Fund in Thailand Provide Diversification Benefits for Stock Investment?.AU Journal of Management,14(2). Yang, Y., Narayanan, V. K., De Carolis, D. M. (2014). The relationship between portfolio diversification and firm value: The evidence from corporate venture capital activity.Strategic Management Journal,35(13), 1993-2011. Yu, J. R., Chiou, W. J. P., Yang, J. H. (2017). Diversification benefits of risk portfolio models: a case of Taiwans stock market.Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting,48(2), 467-502. Zorn, D., Dobbin, F., Dierkes, J., Kwok, M. S. (2014). Managing investors: How financial markets reshaped the American firm

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Australasian Accounting Business A Finance -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Australasian Accounting Business A Finance? Answer: Introduction: The report is prepared to gain knowledge regarding the given case study by answering several questions attached with the same. Two cases are financial accounting in the real world 3.3 and 3.5 as provided. Financial accounting case 3.3 is about RBA right to doubt Lehman brother accounts and financial accounting case 3.5 is about retailers facing multibillion dollar hit from proposed lease accounting changes. Explanation of these two cases has been done by answering the questions related to each individual case. Retailers facing multibillion dollar hit from proposed lease accounting changes: Existing lease standard does not mandate reporting entities to disclose their operating lease on their statement of financial position rather than they are obliged to show financing lease. Financing leases appears on balance sheet while operating leases are not. Operating lease could be compared to regular rent agreements and finance leases are compared to debt purchase finance. Therefore, financing lease leads to leads to revealing of actual amount of debt that companies are owing to and this might hamper the financial reputation of investors from investors viewpoint. Opting for treating lease as operating lease does not lead to reveal actual amount of debts and therefore, it is preferred by company to treat lease as operating lease rather than financing lease (Arrozio et al., 2016). The new lease standard will have an impact on increasing the debt structures and balance sheet of companies as the focus is on operating lease capitalization. This increase in the balance sheet could suddenly violate the existing debt covenants. It depicts that for excluding the lease agreements, companies need to renegotiate exist debt covenants. Increased debt structure of companies covenants has the possibility of endangering violating debt covenants. This is so because such increased structure will have considerable impact on calculations financial covenants in arranging lease and other financial transactions. Shifting of operating lease into the debt structures will increase the amount of debt of borrowers (Wong Joshi, 2015). The credit arrangement would have ripple impact due to the implementation of this new lease standard. A debt covenant that relies on floated GAAP will have its calculation based on accounting rules in placing each time when the computation of covenant is done. On other hand, the calculation of debt covenants based on fixed GAAP is done on accounting rules using the debt covenants in place when it was negotiated originally. Borrowers relying on fixed GAAP will face lower risks and this is because when there is any change in accounting standard, then borrowers will not be exposed to debt covenants violation. Borrowings that are issued at the fixed rate do not expose the consolidated entry to interest rate risk that is valued fairly. On other hand, borrowings that are issues based on floating GAAP exposes the entity to fair value interest rate risks. Therefore, the differences between the debt covenants are likely to be attributable in terms of accounting treatment and the risks to borrowers. Debt covenants under fixed GAAP are not exposed to market risks and while that of floating GAAP are exposed to market risks (Beckman, 2016). Organizations, which are more likely to be lobby against the new accounting standard, can be explained by the determinants of lobbying in the field of setting accounting standards. As per the perception of managers, the possible impact of act on financial performance of organization will determine the lobbying decision. Organizations that are capital intensive and are required to make disclosure of huge volume of loans on their balance sheet are likely to lobby against the new lease accounting standard (Warren, 2016). Such organizations mostly treat lease as finance lease and make the disclosure of the same in the balance sheet as against companies treating lease as operating lease. RBA right to doubt Lehman brother accounts: Window dressing is the actions that are taken or are not taken prior to the issuance of financial statements for improving the appearance of financial statements. It is usually done by the management of company for improving the approaches of financing statements and this can take the form of removing the actual amount of value of debts that is owned by company, total manipulation of balance sheets. Window dressing can be performed any organizations who wants to look attractive in the investors eyes but in reality they are not (Edeigba Amenkhienan, 2017). Such practice can be exercised in all types of accounts such as accounts receivables, debt account, cash, revenue and expenses. Therefore, window dressing is the manipulation of the items of financial statements with an intention of concealing some usual transactions. This particular article is about the collapse of Lehman brothers that has manipulated its balance sheet with an intention of concealing huge amount of debts in the capital structure. Window dressing that has been done by Lehman brothers is concealing a debt of millions of dollars before its collapsing. Cause that was responsible for the collapse was practice of window dressing such as insisting on collateral for loans and unsecured mortgages. Accounting practice of organization was misleading and it is regarded as unethical on part of investors and organization as a whole. Before the collapse of bank, this particular financial institution has removed $ 50 million from the books of accounts. There was actionable manipulation of balance sheet and made non-culpable judgment errors in business. Moreover, Lehman brothers also made use of Repo 105 that was questionable by Reserve bank of Australia. The transactions related to Repo 105 and using this moved billion of Lehman accounts that ca me under scrutiny by banks. Accounting practice of Repo 105 led to moving of $ 39 billion of debt off balance sheet in 2007 in its final quarter and $ 49 billion in year 2008 in the first quarter and another amount of $ 50 billion in the second quarter (Grenier et al., 2015). Positive accounting theory is about the predictions of selection of accounting practices by organization by responding to any changes in accounting standard. It is the theory that helps in providing views with the descriptive information about the accountants behaviors. This particular theory is base done there three hypothesis and this involves bonus plan hypothesis, debt equity hypothesis and political cost hypothesis (Murphy, 2016). The case of Lehman brothers can be explained in the context of second hypothesis of positive accounting theory. It is illustrative of the fact that the more a company is in debt and the more it will be focusing on its present earnings due to presence of debt covenants. This particular perspective of the theory suggests it, that goal earning manipulation objective of organization should be consistent with the financial markets expectations. Manipulations of profit are done in the form of falsification and earnings management. Falsification is related to disclosing of wrong data to the users of financial statements and such actions are regarded as criminal activity (Backof et al., 2016). On other hand, earning management involves period postponement that influences the operations by changing method of measurements. The focus of this theory is the manipulation of profits done by the top-level management. In the case of Lehman brothers, it can be seen that organization was involved in both the perspectives of equity debt hypothesis according to positive accounting theory. Earning management was done in context of changing accounting practice that came under the scrutiny. It was mainly related to involve in is the use of repurchased agreements known as Repo 105 at Lehman brothers and this particular accounting practice has led to moving of billions of Lehman accounts. The main intention to use this particular accounting practice was to reduce or minimize the level of debt of organization and was used extensively before the crash. Furthermore, it was also engaged in falsification as it presented false figures in the balance sheet and duped investors. All such manipulation relating to understatement of debt in the statement of financial position was to be in line with the expectations of the financi al markets and their capability of influencing capital market. Faithful representation is one of the qualitative characteristics of conceptual framework of IASB that had been breached by Lehman brothers. The three economic phenomena that are embedded in the financial information that are represented faithfully involve neutrality, free from errors and completeness. The transactions of bank was not represented faithfully as it manipulated elements of balance sheets and reducing the level of debt and duped investors. Lehman brothers had breached their fiduciary duties and had presented a misleading picture of their financial position. Another qualitative characteristic that had been breached by organization is relevance that is operationalized in terms of confirmatory and predictive value. Such values are regarded as important indicators for value relevance in terms of decision usefulness of users. Lehman brothers had disclosed irrelevant figures on their balance sheet by moving the amount of debts off their balance sheet in every quarter of year 2007 and 2008. Therefore, it had breached characteristic of relevance. There is a high probability that companies with higher level of debts are more likely to engage in the practice of window dressing their financial statements. High level of debts in the capital structure of company is indicative of the fact that there is high proportion of debt in their capital structure and they are relying on borrowings for managing their finances. This depicts that organization might face liquidity problem and considerably affects their credit worthiness. Presence of high level of debts comes is indicative of the fact that enough cash has not been generated to clear their previous long-standing debts and the company is not liquid (Warren, 2016). There should be appropriate proportion of debt in comparison to the equity capital. Therefore, high level of debt increases the chance of practice of window dressing by companies. Furthermore, the higher the level of corporate net debt to total equity increases greater chance of their exposure to sudden changes in the valu e of liabilities and assets. Hence, presence of high debt level also increases the chances of posing internal risks in terms of their overall liabilities and assets. It can be concluded that organization having higher debt level have the higher possibility of engaging in the window dressing practices (Edeigba Amenkhienan, 2017). Nevertheless, such window dressing practices are often misleading, dupe investors, and are regarded as unethical. Conclusion: The two case study provided depicts that the new lease standard comes with some controversies and the practice of window dressing is more inclined towards high debt companies. It can be inferred from the analysis of case study 3.5 that new lease standard comes with challenges and some of the operations are expected to lobby against the new standard. Case of Lehman brothers depicts that high-level debt firms often engage in window dressing practices. Nonetheless, the practice of window dressing has overall negative impact in terms of reputation of organizations, as such practice is considered unethical. References Arrozio, M. M., Gonzales, A., da Silva, F. L. (2016). Changes in the financial ratios of the wholesale and retail sector companies arising from the new accounting of the operating lease.Revista Eniac Pesquisa,5(2), 139-159. Backof, A. G., Bamber, E. M., Carpenter, T. D. (2016). Do auditor judgment frameworks help in constraining aggressive reporting? Evidence under more precise and less precise accounting standards.Accounting, Organizations and Society,51, 1-11. Beckman, J. K. (2016). FASB and IASB diverging perspectives on the new lessee accounting: Implications for international managerial decision-making.International Journal of Managerial Finance,12(2), 161-176. Cheng, J. (2015). Small and Medium Sized Entities Managements Perspective on Principles-Based Accounting Standards on Lease Accounting.Technology and Investment,6(01), 71. Edeigba, J., Amenkhienan, F. (2017). The Influence of IFRS Adoption on Corporate Transparency and Accountability: Evidence from New Zealand.Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal,11(3), 3-19. Gimbar, C., Hansen, B., Ozlanski, M. E. (2016). The effects of critical audit matter paragraphs and accounting standard precision on auditor liability.The Accounting Review,91(6), 1629-1646. Grenier, J. H., Pomeroy, B., Stern, M. T. (2015). The effects of accounting standard precision, auditor task expertise, and judgment frameworks on audit firm litigation exposure.Contemporary Accounting Research,32(1), 336-357. Murphy, M. L. (2016). Bringing Leases into View: With New Assets and Liabilities Coming onto Balance Sheets, It's Time for Preparers and Practitioners to Act.Journal of Accountancy,221(4), 23. Picker, R., Clark, K., Dunn, J., Kolitz, D., Livne, G., Loftus, J., Van der Tas, L. (2016).Applying international financial reporting standards. John Wiley Sons. Sliwoski, L. J. (2017). Understanding the New Lease Accounting Guidance.Journal of Corporate Accounting Finance,28(4), 48-52. Warren, C. M. (2016). The impact of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)/International Financial Reporting Standard 16 (IFRS 16).Property Management,34(3). Wong, K., Joshi, M. (2015). The impact of lease capitalisation on financial statements and key ratios: Evidence from Australia.Australasian Accounting Business Finance Journal,9(3), 27.